# Help:Wiki markup

The wiki markup is the syntax system you can use to format a wiki page.

What it looks like What you type

=Header Level 1=
Content.

Content.

Content.

Content.

Content.

Content.


What it looks like What you type

Grieg wrote a chorale.

• A link to another Wiki article.
• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link above is to the URL http://www.youngcomposers.com/articles/Chorale, which is YC's article with the name "Chorale".
Grieg wrote a [[chorale]].


Beethoven also wrote chorales.

• Same target, different name.
• The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text that will be displayed second.
Beethoven also wrote[[chorale|chorales]].


An orchestra may have up to forty or more violinists.

Types of percussion instruments include include snare drums, gongs, and triangles.

• Endings are blended into the link.
• Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
• Blending can be suppressed by using <nowiki></nowiki> tags, which may be desirable in some instances. Example: a microsecond.
An orchestra may have up to forty or more
[[violin]]ists.

Types of percussion instruments include include [[snare drum]]s, [[gong]]s,
and [[triangle]]s.

a [[micro]]<nowiki>second
</nowiki>

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

See the
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].


Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: Tveitt wrote his Piano Sonata No. 29.

Automatically hide namespace: Village Pump.

Or both: Manual of Style

• The server fills in the part after the pipe character (|) when you save the page. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page (see previous entry).
• See Pipe trick for details.
Automatically hide stuff
in parentheses:
Tveitt wrote his [[Piano Sonata No. 29 (Tveitt)|]].

Automatically hide namespace:
[[Wikipedia:Village Pump|]].

Or both:

But not:
[[Wikipedia:


National sarcasm society is a page that does not exist yet.

• You can create it by clicking on the link.
• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• For more information, see How to start a page and check out Wikipedia's naming conventions.
• Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
[[National sarcasm society]]
is a page
that does not exist yet.


• Self links appear as bold text when the article is viewed.
• Do not use this technique to make the article name bold in the first paragraph; see the Manual of Style.
[[Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]


The character tilde (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page. You should sign your comment by appending four tildes (~~~~) to the comment so as to add your user name plus date/time:

Patricia Zhang 13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)

Patricia Zhang

and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives the date/time alone:

13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)
• The first two both provide a link to your user page.
The character '''tilde''' (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page.
You should sign your comment by appending four tildes (~~~~)
to the comment so as to add your user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
: ~~~
and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives the date/time alone:
: ~~~~~

• Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States History will redirect to the United States page, to the History section if it exists.
#REDIRECT [[chorale]]

#REDIRECT [[Chorale#The chorale in the works of JS Bach|Bach Chorale]] will redirect to the
[[Chorale]] page, to the section "The chorale in the works of JS Bach" if it exists

• Link to a page on the same subject in another language by placing a link of the form: [[language code:Title]] in the wiki text of the article.

For example in the article on Plankton, which is available on a lot of other wikis, the interlanguage links would look like so:

[[de:Plankton]] [[es:Plancton]] [[ru:Планктон]] [[simple:Plankton]]
• While it does not matter where you put these links while editing, it is recommended that these links be placed at the very end of the edit box.
• These will not be visible in the main text of the article on which they are placed but appear as links in the extreme left margin column of Wikipedia page as part of a separate box under the 'toolbox' titled 'in other languages'. You can check out the links to the corresponding page in wikipedias of other languages for this Wikipedia MOS help page itself.
• Please see Wikipedia:Interlanguage links and the list of languages and codes.

'''What links here''' and
'''Related changes'''
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
and
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]


A user's '''Contributions''' page
or
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]

• To put an article in a Wikipedia:Category, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, it does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.
[[Category:Character sets]]

• To link to a Wikipedia:Category page without putting the article into the category, use an initial colon (:) in the link.
[[:Category:Character sets]]


2. Interwiki link without prefix: Hello
3. Named interwiki link: Wiktionary definition of 'Hello'

Linking to other wikis:
[[Wiktionary:Hello]]
[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]
[[Wiktionary:Hello|
Wiktionary definition
of 'Hello']]

language's wiktionary:
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]


ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

• Link to books using their ISBN. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended.
• ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X


Text mentioning RFC 4321 anywhere

Text mentioning RFC 4321
anywhere


Date formats:

• Link dates in one of the above formats, so that everyone can set their own display order. If logged in, you can use Special:Preferences to change your own date display setting.
• All of the above dates will appear as "20 July 1969" if you set your date display preference to "15 January 2001", but as "July 20, 1969" if you set it to "January 15, 2001", or as "1969-07-20" if you set it to "2001-01-15".
Date formats:
# [[July 20]], [[1969]]
# [[20 July]] [[1969]]
# [[1969]]-[[07-20]]
# [[1969-07-20]]



Special WP:AO links like this year needing future maintenance

Special [[WP:AO]] links
like [[As of 2006|this year]]
needing future maintenance


Sound

• To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, see next section.

Some uploaded sounds are listed at Wikipedia:Sound.

[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]


### Images

Only images that have been uploaded to our wiki can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.

What it looks like What you type
A picture:

A picture:
[[Image:Image of a Grieg motif.]]
With alternative text:

With alternative text:
[[Image:Grieg motive.JPG|The Grieg Motif.]]
• Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternate text for images for help on choosing it.
Floating to the right side of the page using the frame attribute and a caption:
Young Composers Wiki

Floating to the right side of the page using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:Grieg motive.JPG|frame|Young Composers Wiki]]
• The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
• The caption is also used as alternate text.
Floating to the right side of the page using the thumb attribute and a caption:
Young Composers Wiki

Floating to the right side of the page using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:Grieg motive.JPG|thumb|Young Composers Wiki]]
• The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
• The caption is also used as alternate text.
• An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:
Floating to the right side of the page
''without'' a caption:
[[Image:Grieg motive.JPG|right|Young Composers Wiki]]
A picture resized to 30 pixels...

A picture resized to 30 pixels...
[[Image:Grieg motive.JPG|30 px]]
Linking directly to the description page of an image:

Image:Grieg motive.JPG

Linking directly to the description page
of an image:
[[:Image:Grieg motive.JPG]]
• Clicking on an image displayed on a page

(such as any of the ones above) also leads to the description page

Linking directly to an image without displaying it:

Image of the Grieg motif.

Linking directly to an image
without displaying it:
[[:media:Image:Grieg motive.JPG|Image of the Grieg motif.]]
Using the div tag to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text):
Example:
<div style="display:inline;
width:220px; float:right;">
Place images here </div>
Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers):
Example: {| align=right
|-
|
Place images here
|}


See the Wikipedia's image use policy as a guideline used on Wikipedia.

For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the topic on Extended image syntax.

### Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Emphasized text
Strong emphasis
Even stronger emphasis

''Emphasized text''
'''Strong emphasis'''
'''''Even stronger emphasis'''''


A typewriter font for monospace text or for computer code: int main()

• For semantic reasons, using <code> where applicable is preferable to using <tt>.
A typewriter font for <tt>monospace text</tt>
or for computer code: <code>int main()</code>

Create codeblocks

#include <iostream.h>
int main ()
{
cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}

that are printed as entered
Use <code><pre> Block of Code </pre></code> around the
block of code.

* The <pre> tags within the codeblock will create formatting
issues - to solve, display the tags literally with
&lt;pre&gt;  and  &lt;/pre&gt;

You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.


Better stay away from big text, unless it's within small text.

Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.


You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

You can also mark deleted material and inserted material using logical markup. For backwards compatibility better combine this potentially ignored new logical with the old physical markup.

• When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
• When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup.
For backwards compatibility better combine this
potentially ignored new <del>logical</del> with
the old <s><del>physical</del></s> markup.


Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (''to'') the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]

• Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
• Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
• Does not escape HTML character references.
• To escape HTML character references such as &rarr; use &amp;rarr;

<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'')
the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]</nowiki>


Commenting page source:
not shown when viewing page

• Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
• Note that most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page.

<!-- comment here -->


Diacritical marks:
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;


Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”

&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;


Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;


Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
<br/>
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
<br/>
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
<br/>
x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;
<br/>
x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]


Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;


Mathematical characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;


$\,\! \sin x + \ln y$
sinx + lny

$\mathbf{x} = 0$
x = 0

Ordinary text should use wiki markup for emphasis, and should not use <i> or <b>. However, mathematical formulas often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Complex formulas should use $ markup, and simple formulas may use [itex]; or <i> and <b>; or '' and '''. According to WikiProject Mathematics, wiki markup is preferred over HTML markup like <i> and <b>. [itex]\,\! \sin x + \ln y$
sin''x'' + ln''y''

$\mathbf{x} = 0$
'''x''' = 0


Spacing in simple math formulas:
Obviously, x² ≥ 0 is true when x is a real number.

• To space things out without allowing line breaks to interrupt the formula, use non-breaking spaces: &nbsp;.

Obviously, ''x''&sup2;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;0 is true when ''x'' is a real number.


Complicated formulas:

$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$
• See Help:Formula for how to use $. • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character. : [itex]\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


### No or limited formatting—showing exactly what is being typed

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki to display things as you typed them—what you see, is what you get!

What it looks like What you type
<nowiki> tags

The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets special characters: →

<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It reformats text by removing newlines
and multiple spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</nowiki>

<pre> tags
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters: →

<pre>
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters:
&rarr;
</pre>

Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted.
It still interprets Wiki markup and
special characters: →

Leading spaces are another way
to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted.
It still interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and
special characters: &rarr;


<!--- This is an example of text that won't normally be visible except in "edit" mode. --->